What is E3/AS1 and How Does it Impact Your Timber Flooring Project?

When planning a timber flooring project, understanding the building codes and standards, such as E3/AS1, is crucial for ensuring compliance and quality. This article delves into the intricacies of E3/AS1, a part of the New Zealand Building Code (NZBC), and how it applies to your timber flooring project. We’ll explore the importance of compliance with these standards, focusing specifically on the relevance of the ISO4760 test for joint permeability in timber floors.

What is E3/AS1?

E3/AS1 is a section of the NZBC that sets the requirements for building elements to protect against moisture. It is essential for architects, interior designers, architectural builders, and homeowners to understand these requirements to ensure the durability and safety of their flooring installations.

The Importance of Compliance with E3/AS1 in Timber Flooring

Compliance with E3/AS1 is not just a legal requirement but also a matter of quality assurance. Timber flooring, particularly engineered oak, which is a specialty of Vienna Woods, must meet certain standards to ensure it withstands moisture and environmental changes over time. Compliance ensures longevity, safety, and a high standard of living.

The Role of ISO4760 in Timber Flooring

The ISO4760 test is a key component in assessing the quality of timber flooring. This test measures the joint permeability of flooring, which is crucial in determining its resistance to moisture and humidity – a critical factor in New Zealand’s varied climate. High joint permeability can lead to moisture seeping through, causing damage over time. Therefore, understanding the results of this test is crucial in selecting the right flooring material.

How ISO4760 Test Substantiates Compliance for Timber Floors According to E3/AS1

The ISO4760 test results can be used to demonstrate compliance with E3/AS1. By showing that the timber flooring has low joint permeability, it assures that the product is resistant to moisture ingress, aligning with the NZBC’s requirements. This is particularly important in areas prone to dampness or in buildings where moisture control is a critical aspect of the design.

Choosing the Right Timber Flooring Compliant with E3/AS1

At Vienna Woods, we specialize in high-quality engineered oak flooring sourced from Europe, meeting the high standards set by the NZBC. Our products are tested and proven to comply with E3/AS1, ensuring that they are not only aesthetically pleasing but also durable and safe.


Understanding E3/AS1 and ensuring compliance through tests like the ISO4760 is essential for any timber flooring project in New Zealand. By choosing Vienna Woods, you are selecting a partner that values quality, compliance, and the longevity of your investment. Our commitment to meeting these standards reflects our dedication to being the first choice in quality timber flooring in New Zealand.

For more information and expert guidance on selecting the right timber flooring for your project, visit Vienna Woods.



  • New Zealand Building Code (NZBC), E3/AS1
  • Ministry of Business, Innovation and Employment (MBIE) Guidelines
  • ISO4760 Test Standards

Understanding and Remedying Cupping in Timber Floors

A Guide for Architects, Interior Designers, and Homeowners

At Vienna Woods, we understand the elegance and durability that timber flooring brings to any space. As experts in providing high-quality engineered oak flooring, we are committed to not only offering the best products but also ensuring their longevity and beauty in your projects and homes. One common issue that needs addressing in timber flooring is ‘cupping’ – a phenomenon that can affect both solid and engineered floors. This article is crafted to help our architects, interior designers, architectural builders, and homeowners understand cupping, its causes, and effective remedies.


What is Cupping in Timber Flooring?

Cupping occurs when the edges of a timber floorboard rise higher than its center, creating a concave shape. This is commonly observed in both solid wood and engineered wood floors. Cupping is often a response to moisture imbalance within the flooring material – a higher moisture content on the bottom surface compared to the top.


Causes of Cupping

  1. Moisture Imbalance: The primary cause of cupping is a difference in moisture levels between the top and bottom of the flooring. This can be due to environmental humidity, spills, or moisture from the subfloor.

  2. Inconsistent Manufactured Moisture Content: Engineered floors are manufactured at specific moisture levels. If these levels are not consistent across the layers of the board, cupping can occur after installation.

  3. Subfloor Conditions: Moist subfloors, especially under bamboo or engineered floors, can transfer moisture to the flooring, leading to cupping.

  4. Environmental Factors: Factors such as sun exposure, heating, and air-conditioning can impact the moisture balance in timber flooring.


Remedies for Cupping

  1. Preventative Measures: The best remedy is prevention. Ensure a continuous plastic damp proof layer is installed between the engineered wood flooring and the subfloor. This helps prevent moisture-related cupping.

  2. Re-sanding and Refinishing: In milder cases, re-sanding the affected floor can even out the surface. However, ensure the moisture content of the floor is stable before sanding.

  3. Floor Replacement: In cases where cupping is extensive and other methods are ineffective, replacing the flooring may be necessary.

  4. Environmental Control: Implementing measures like window treatments and mats can help control the factors contributing to cupping.

  5. Subfloor Assessment: Addressing any issues with the subfloor, including moisture and stability, is crucial in preventing and remedying cupping.


Why This Matters to You

For architects and designers, understanding these issues ensures that your designs maintain their integrity over time. For builders, this knowledge helps in delivering durable and high-quality flooring to your clients. And for homeowners, being informed means you can better care for and maintain the beauty of your timber floors.

At Vienna Woods, we believe in empowering our clients with knowledge. Understanding issues like cupboarding enables you to make informed decisions about your flooring, ensuring lasting beauty and durability. For more information or to explore our range of high-quality timber flooring, visit us at www.viennawoods.co.nz.

Comparing Solid Wood vs Engineered Timber Flooring: A Technical Insight

The choice between solid wood and engineered timber flooring is vital for homeowners and professionals. This article integrates technical details from recent industry manuals to offer a deeper understanding of these two popular flooring options.

1. Composition and Structural Differences:

  • Solid Wood Flooring: Made from single pieces of hardwood, solid wood flooring is known for its robustness and susceptibility to environmental changes like humidity.
  • Engineered Timber Flooring: Comprises a hardwood veneer over a core layer, often plywood or fibreboard. Engineered flooring offers enhanced stability against humidity changes due to its cross-laminated structure.

2. Installation and Environmental Adaptability:

  • Solid Wood: Requires careful installation, taking into account factors like moisture content and subfloor conditions. It’s sensitive to environmental changes and needs acclimatisation before installation.
  • Engineered Timber: Adaptable to various subfloor conditions and can be installed as floating floors. Its layered construction minimises dimensional changes due to humidity.

3. Durability and Maintenance:

  • Solid Wood: Can be sanded and refinished multiple times, extending its lifespan. It requires regular maintenance to counteract environmental effects.
  • Engineered Timber: The ability to refinish depends on the veneer thickness. It typically requires less maintenance and is more resistant to moisture and heat.

4. Aesthetic Variations and Customisations:

  • Solid Wood: Offers a timeless, natural look with inherent grain and colour variations.
  • Engineered Timber: Provides a wide range of aesthetic options and can mimic rare woods. Veneer quality and construction type can influence its appearance and performance.

5. Environmental Impact and Sustainability:

  • Solid Wood: Utilises more hardwood, impacting forests unless sustainably sourced.
  • Engineered Timber: More sustainable, using less hardwood. The impact depends on core materials and the manufacturing process.

Both solid wood and engineered timber flooring have unique attributes and technical considerations. Your choice will depend on factors like installation environment, maintenance preferences, and sustainability concerns.

Understanding Tolerances for Timber Flooring in New Zealand

Understanding tolerances in engineered timber flooring is crucial for both quality results and adherence to New Zealand building standards. Tolerances refer to the allowable variations in measurements and alignments during construction and installation processes. These guidelines ensure that while perfection might not always be attainable, the quality and integrity of the construction are maintained.

In New Zealand, the standards for timber flooring tolerances are well-defined. For instance, the NZS 3604:2011, a key standard for timber-framed buildings, outlines specific tolerances relevant to various aspects of construction, including timber quality and framing. This standard ensures that timber used in buildings, including flooring, meets certain criteria for dimensions and alignment to maintain structural integrity and aesthetic quality.

Specifically, for timber flooring, tolerances include allowances for variations in dimensions, straightness, and levelness. These tolerances are critical to ensure that the flooring not only looks good but also performs well over time. For instance, there are set limits for how much a floor can deviate from being level or how straight the timber must be. These limits are measured in millimeters and are based on the length of the timber used.

The Building CodeHub’s “Tolerances tables – Build 184 (2021)” also provides comprehensive information on construction tolerances. It includes details on the permitted variations from given dimensions, the range of variation in maintaining a specified dimension, and variations from location or alignment. Adhering to these tolerances ensures that subsequent trades can achieve quality results and that the final construction meets the desired standards.

These tolerances are not just about the technical aspects of construction; they are also about the end-user experience. Floors that are not level or have significant variations can lead to discomfort and even safety issues. Therefore, understanding and applying these tolerances is not just a matter of regulatory compliance but also about delivering a product that meets the highest standards of quality and comfort.

For more detailed and specific information regarding the tolerances in timber flooring, professionals in the industry often refer to the NZS 3604:2011 standard and resources provided by Building CodeHub and BRANZ.

When it comes to engineered timber flooring in New Zealand, adhering to the set tolerances is key. These guidelines ensure that the flooring is not only aesthetically pleasing but also structurally sound and safe for use. By following these standards, builders and installers can provide quality flooring solutions that stand the test of time.

What is Engineered Timber Flooring?

At Vienna Woods we often find that there are some misunderstandings about what is commonly called Engineered Flooring.  In the following article we will outline exactly what engineered flooring is and clear up any misconceptions.

The concept of engineered timber has been around for some time.  It wasn’t until the early 20th century when engineered timber began to be used for flooring.  See our article on The History of Engineered Flooring for more information.

Engineered flooring is term used to describe a flooring board comprising of layers of timber glued together to form a robust “engineered” plank.  The top layer is usually a species of hard wood.

Fusing the layers together in this way is also called laminating.  builders frequently work with laminated timber for everything from various ply wood application through to ceiling beams.  Laminated timbers are often used for their added spanning properties (think thick laminated beams) and also their structure stability (think of sheets of plywood).  However, some confusion  exists when using the term “laminated” with flooring.  There is a category of flooring named “laminated” which refers to a synthetic top layer laminated to a high density fibreboard backing.  Engineered timber flooring is technically laminated, but it does not fall under the category of laminated flooring.  Even builders (who commonly use and discuss laminated products) will sometimes refer to engineered timber flooring as “laminated”.

The Key Features of Engineered Timber Flooring:

  1. Layers: The typical engineered timber floor plank is made up of three or more layers. These layers are laid at right angles to each other to improve strength and resilience.
  2. Top Layer (Wear Layer): The topmost layer is a veneer of the desired hardwood. This could be oak, maple, or any other type of wood. This layer provides the look and feel of solid hardwood flooring. The thickness of this layer can vary, but it’s generally between 2mm to 6mm. This layer can be sanded and refinished, depending on its thickness.
  3. Core Layers: Beneath the top layer are several core layers, usually made from plywood, hardwood, or high-density fiberboard. These layers provide stability, reducing the wood’s natural tendency to expand and contract with changes in humidity and temperature. This makes engineered wood flooring more suitable for areas with varying climate conditions or for installation over underfloor heating systems.
  4. Bottom Layer: The bottom layer of engineered wood flooring is usually made from the same material as the core layers. It helps balance the board and prevent warping.

Engineered timber floors include a top layer of hardwood; typically 2.5 to 6mm, and a backing board which will sometimes be multi layered ply and some times solid core.  The backing board is usually made from a fast growing softwood.  The benefits of this construction are;

  • Stability: The cross-layer construction provides high stability compared to solid wood, making it less prone to changes caused by humidity and temperature.
  • Versatility: Engineered wood can be installed over various types of subfloors, including concrete.
  • Sustainability: Since the top layer is a thin veneer, less hardwood is used compared to solid wood flooring. This can be more sustainable if the wood is sourced responsibly.
  • Compatibility with Underfloor Heating: The construction of engineered wood makes it suitable for use with underfloor heating systems.

There are a number of different engineered timber types with connection systems, thicknesses and construction types varying a great deal.  The more common architypes are pictured below;